Perfect Hard-boiled Eggs

Place eggs into salted water that covers them by at least 1/2 inch.

Bring to a good boil, remove from heat and cover them. Let sit for 15 minutes. One of the eggs developed a tiny crack, and lost some white. No problemo!

After they have cooked, drain the hot water and use ice and water to chill the eggs thoroughly.

To peel them, crack the shell slightly all over the egg. Put them one at a time into a container with about 1 inch of water. The container should be large enough that the egg has plenty of room to move.

Put the lid on and shake the container vigorously. The water will help to prevent damage to the egg and float the shell away from the egg.

Here they are, after about 1 minute of work. And note that the yolks are perfectly done.

Javascript functions for numeric input and output

As a part of a calculator for model railroad stub switches, I developed a couple of javascript routines for input and output that allow more flexibility than the standard implementation.

This function converts to text for display from a numeric value, with a variable number of decimals, removing extra trailing zeroes. It also converts the (default inch) measure to millimeters based on the units global variable.

This function accepts text from an input box in various formats and units of measurement. The return value is always converted into inches.
Value formats:

  • Decimal: a value such as 1.5
  • Mixed fraction: a value such as 1 1/2
  • Fraction: a value such as 3/8
  • Decimal: a value such as 0.375

Measure specifiers:

  • in: inches
  • ft: feet
  • mm: millimeter
  • cm: centimeter

Building a Large Curved Trestle on a Grade – Part 6

Assembling a Trestle Section

Construction Jig

To accurately position the bents I created a construction jig. I created a full-size CAD drawing that I had printed at Staples as shown in Figure 1. The bottom view is the one I will use to position the bents properly, as I am building this “upside-down,” much like you’d do in a smaller scale. The drawing is “glued” to a piece of plywood with wheat paste (flour and water) and stops are added at each bent location as shown in Photo 1. I added two protruding nails to each to allow a rubber-band to wrap around and hold the bent tight against the stop.

Figure 1 - Bent Stringer Plan

Figure 1 – Bent Stringer Plan

 

 

Photo 1 - Bent Assembly Jig

Photo 1 – Bent Assembly Jig

If you want to draw the diagram – and you really only need a center line and lines for each bent – you can lay this out with the tried-and-true string compass method. (The red lines are what you would draw.) To calculate the span between bents in inches, which will give you the desired angle in degrees between each pair of bents, use this formula (diameter in feet): span = angle * diameter / 9.55. For example: 6 foot radius (12 foot diameter), 7.5 degree angle, span = 7.5 * 12 / 9.55 = 9.424 (just under 9 7/16”).

Bent Angle Supports

Trestle bents are always vertical, so there will be an angle other than 90 degrees between the stringers and the bents. On a 2.5% grade, the angle is a 1.43 degree lean toward the downhill end if building upside-down. (This is the same angle as the 2.5% grade is from horizontal.) To create an angle guide to use during construction use a piece of rectangular material such as thin plywood and measure along an edge 20”, where the angle is offset ½” from square. To find the distance to any rise for any grade, use distance = rise / grade. So for a ½” rise on a 2.5% grade, distance = 0.5 / 0.025 = 20”.

I made several identical plywood angle guides by building an angle jig to hold a rectangular piece at the correct angle when run through the table saw as shown in Photo 2. I added scrap cedar nailed and glued in place to provide a clamping surface. The jigs ready for use are shown in Photo 3.

Photo 2 - Bent Angle Jig

Photo 2 – Bent Angle Jig

 

Photo 3 - Angle Jigs

Photo 3 – Angle Jigs

Section Assembly

I positioned bents 15 through 18 on the assembly jig as shown in Photo 4. The girts must be added “upside down.” So unlike the conventional assembly method, I’ll need clamps to hold them in place while the glue sets. (I will need more clamps!) After the girts are in place, wall bracing is added between these four bents. (I use a small piece of brace material where the bent is on the outside surface of the pair to prevent excessive bending as shown in Photo 5.

Photo 4 - Bent Assembly Fixture

Photo 4 – Bent Assembly Fixture

 

 

Photo 5 - Small Block Under Top Brace

Photo 5 – Small Block Under Top Brace

The complete assembly of bents with girts and wall bracing is shown in Photo 6.

Photo 6 - Complete Assembly

Photo 6 – Complete Assembly

Building a Large Curved Trestle on a Grade – Part 5

Part 5 – Building the Beam Assemblies

The Beam Assemblies

There are two beam assemblies each made of eight 3/8” x 1½” beams spaced equally with angled braces as shown in Figure 1. These rest on short bents attached to a full-height bent. Bents #8 and #12 rest on these beams. Two additional beams run between the main assemblies, running through bent #10.

Figure 1 Beam Assembly

Figure 1 Beam Assembly

As there are only two of these I will not build a jig. Each beam has a 7.5-degree angle at each end, matching the bent angle. A full-size paper plan was glued to acrylic with a washable glue stick to keep it flat. The cuts are measured directly from the plan by putting a beam in place and marking the location. I also used some ½” square stock cut at the same angle for blocks to reinforce the beams and provide attachment points to the support bents. Photo 1 shows beams and blocks on the plan.

Photo 1 Beams and Blocks

Photo 1 Beams and Blocks

The beams and blocks are first glued in pairs, then the pairs are glued and finally the two halves are joined as shown in Photo 2.

The beam assemblies were then glued and nailed to the support bents. Note that the beams are NOT square to the bents – the bents are square to the workbench. Finally, the bent resting on the beams (also not square to the beams) is glued.

Photo 2 Beam Assembly

Photo 2 Beam Assembly

Adding Girts

Photo 3 Bent 7, 8 and 9 Assembly

Photo 3 Bent 7, 8 and 9 Assembly

Following RGS practice (on this bridge), there is 1 girt in the center and 1 near each end of every sill except the mud sills. So there will be 3 girts per story between each pair of bents. Because this bridge is curved, every girt will have angled ends (3.75 degrees), and mostly different lengths. The ends of each girt is notched a bit to better hold the bent in position. To accurately measure the length, a 3/8” square girt is positioned completely covering one sill, and marked where it crosses the other sill. I used a mini-hacksaw to cut a slit 5/16” from each end and a hobby knife to make a vertical cut. A quick pass with sandpaper finishes the notch. In theory, I should be able to mass-produce each size I need, but in practice I’ll not be surprised if each one is unique.

Figure 2 Beam Detail

Figure 2 Beam Detail

This assembly is fairly rigid. The bent 7, 8 and 9 assembly is shown in Photo 3.

Cement Board Base

Figure 3 Base Layout

Figure 3 Base Layout

Transfer plan Figure 3 to 2’ x 3’ cement boards. Use rip

ped Trex 2×6 for footings glued down with Gorilla Glue. Before gluing footings, use the lines to locate and drill holes from the top for screws driven from the bottom to secure the footings. Drill holes in the mud sill and the Trex for brass pins. Photo 4 shows the base after gluing and screwing the Trex footings.

Beam Assemblies

Photo 5 shows the two complete beam sections ready for assembly in the railway. Photo 6 shows the prototype bridge beam sections.

Photo 5 Beam Sections

Photo 5 Beam Sections

Photo 6 Prototype

Photo 6 Prototype